Bladder Cancer Treatment

The bladder present in our body collects urine from the kidneys before expelling the urine from the body through urination.

This type of cancer develops when the cells in the bladder start to grow in an abnormal manner. Bladder cancer is 4th most prevalent cancer in males and it does affect females also.

This type of growth in the bladder may be benign or malignant. The Malignant ones may be life threatening as it quick spreads in the body. If untreated, this can damage other tissues and organs in the body.

In this article, we will learn about types of bladder cancer, its causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer.


Types of Bladder Cancer:

Bladder cancer generally starts in the cells which line the bladder. There are many types of bladder cancer, however the most common of all is transitional cell carcinoma.

TCC (transitional cell carcinoma)– This is also called as urothelial carcinoma. This type of cancer begins in the cells which line the inside of a bladder. TCC may also affect the lining of ureters and the kidneys.

A person who is diagnosed with TCC usually goes for a detailed evaluation of the whole urinary tract. TCC can be invasive as well as noninvasive, Invasive conditions are difficult to treat and require more aggressive approach to contain the disease.


Other types Gladder Cancer:

There are various types of cancer which start in bladder, they include the following:

  • Squamous cell carcinoma: This constitutes about 1–2% of all bladder cancers. This occurs on flat and thin cells on the surface of the bladder. Most of them are invasive.
  • Adenocarcinoma: Approx. 1 percent of CA bladders are adenocarcinoma. These occur in the cells which secrete mucus. These are also invasive in nature.
  • Small cell carcinoma: Less than1 percent of CA Bladder are small cell carcinoma. They begin in neuroendocrine cells. These grow quickly and need immediate treatment with chemotherapy.
  • Sarcoma: This is rare type of CA bladder with origin being muscle cells of the bladder.


Causes of Bladder Cancer:

  • The cause of bladder cancers are still not known, however genetic mutations can play some role in this.
  • Smoking of the tobacco and exposure to chemicals may cause mutations resulting in CA bladder, however these factors may affect individuals in many different ways.



Symptoms of Bladder Cancer:

Some of the common symptoms in the early stages of bladder cancer include the following;

  • Presence of blood in Urine: This is a common symptom seen in the CA Bladder patients.
  • Urination habits: A person may start feeling frequent urination, the flow of urination may be abnormal and can also feel pain or burning sensation during passing the urine.


Symptoms In the Late-Stage Bladder Cancer Patients Include the Following;

  • Pain in the back
  • Unintentional loss of body weight
  • Swelling in feet
  • Pain in the bones
  • Inability to urinate

The symptoms may resemble those of incase of a bladder infection. It is very important to meet with a expert to find out the exact problem.


Diagnosis of Bladder Cancer:

Specialist will ask about symptoms and medical history, They will also conduct your physical examination. Following are the tests that can be prescribed to confirm the diagnosis of the bladder cancer.

Cystoscopy: Doctor in this investigation examines the inside of urethra and bladder with a cystoscope. Cystoscope is a tube which is narrow and contains a camera and light. Cystoscopy generally requires a local anesthetic and this can be done in doctor’s room. If incase the patient requires general anesthesia, ,the procedure is done during hospitalization.

Imaging tests: The following are the tests which can help confirm diagnosis and reveal the spread of the cancer in the body.

Pyelogram: A Doctor will inject dye in bladder and this helps in outlining the bladder and nearby organs making the disease visible on x-ray films.

CT scan: CT scan helps in finding out the size, shape and spread of any tumor in the body.

Ultrasound: This helps in determining the size and also, shows the spread of the tumor.

Urine tests: A doctor may recommend several urine tests, some of them include urine cytology, Urine culture and urine tumor marker tests etc.

Biopsy: While doing the cystoscopy, a doctor can plan to collect some small samples for the biopsy. If there is presence of cancer, this biopsy may help establish its invasive nature. For Biopsy, A doctor uses a hollow, thin needle to collect tiny tissues using a CT scanner a USG.


Treatment of Bladder Cancer:

The main treatments for bladder cancer include the following:

  • Surgery
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiation therapy


Treatment Will Depend A Number Of Factors, Some Of Them Includes:

  • Location & stage
  • Overall health of the patient
  • Age
  • Personal choices and preferences